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Anti-terrorism Measures, Security and Human Rights
Developments in Europe, Central Asia and North America in the Aftermath of September 11

April 2003

Report by the International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights (IHF)


The International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights (IHF) is a non-governmental organization that seeks to promote compliance with the human rights provisionsof the Helsinki Final Act and its Follow-up Documents. In addition to supporting and providing liaison among 41 Helsinki Committees and co-operating organizations, the IHF has direct links with human rights activists in countries where no Helsinki Committees exist. It criticizes human rights abuses regardless of the political system of the State in which these abuses occur. It has consultativestatus with the United Nations and the Council of Europe. The IHF represents member and co-operating committees in Albania, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, and Uzbekistan. Other co-operating organizations include the European Roma Rights Center (Budapest), and Human Rights Without Frontiers (Brussels).

President: Vice President: Treasurer: Executive Committee:

Ludmilla Alexeyeva Ulrich Fischer Stein-Ivar Aarsaether Sonja Biserko HollyCartner Bjørn Engesland Krassimir Kanev Andrzej Rzeplinski Aaron Rhodes Brigitte Dufour

Executive Director: Deputy Executive Director/Legal Counsel:

International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights (IHF) Wickenburggasse 14/7, A-1080 Vienna, Austria Tel: (+43-1) 408 88 22, Fax: (+43-1) 408 88 22-50 E-mail: [email protected] Internet: http://www.ihf-hr.org Bank account: Bank Austria Creditanstalt0221-00283/00 © 2002 by the International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights and IHF Research Foundation. All rights reserved.


The IHF would like to express its profound gratitude to Stefan Trechsel, Professor of Law, University of Zürich, and former President of the European Commission of Human Rights, for his many helpful comments on the draft of this report and forhis guidance throughout the project as a member of the IHF Expert Committee formed to oversee this project. We would also like to thank Andrzej Rzeplinski, Professor of Law, Warsaw University, and member of the IHF Executive Committee, and Hannes Tretter, Director of the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights in Vienna, for their contributions to the project as members of the Expert Committee.Holly Cartner, member of the IHF Executive Committee and former Executive Director of the Europe and Central Asia division of Human Rights Watch, supervised the project and edited the report. Ann-Sofie Nyman and Benjamin Ward, both consultants to the IHF, conducted research for and drafted the report. The IHF is very grateful for their hard work and dedication, as well as for that of all the IHFstaff members and interns who assisted in the preparation of the report. The IHF thanks all those members of the national Helsinki committees, as well as the representatives of many other NGOs, organizations and institutions, who provided information, fact-checking and translations of material as well as other forms of support in the course of the project. Finally, we thank Ambassador GérardStoudmann, the former director of the Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), for his encouragement and support.

Aaron Rhodes Executive Director


Table of Contents Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11
The Human…