Cours de civilisation américaine – les années reagan
Because (Thanks to this) of the new Republican platform (programme), Reagan was able to attract democratic voters.
Democratic voters based on « New Deal coalition » (1930s to the end of 1970s) :
minories (jews, catholics, racial minorities)
Those people who traditionnal voted for the democratic party. The poor whites, the 1960s, thedemocratic in racial minorities, so poor whites started to feel that the main focus was minorities, so they felt neglected. In fact, these people moved to reagan party, was the candidate of white traditionnal values. These people actually voted to Reagan. That’s why those people are called the « Reagan Democrats ».
In political strategy, the main group is « reagan democrats » (he is very very important)because others will vote to their candidate party so only « reagan democrats » can change their vote.
Third reason, demographic reason : ageing population.
When you have a population gets older, the population usually vote for the conservative party.
Ageing population : conservative US
Internal migration : East and West coasts vote traditionnally for the south & west conservativeSECOND PART : The domestic situation in the 80s
« The REAGANOMICS »
It is R.Reagan’s principles of the R.Reagan policy.
The Principles :
the New Deal consensus (1932 – 19680) based on 2 ideas, inspired by J.M KEYNES (Keynesion principles):
one the one hand, tax & spend « economic policy » (high taxes and high spending) So the government was the engine of the economy. (buildschool, welfare state..ect..) the result is that there is a « Big government »
« demand-side economics » the government is here to help companies but helping the supply so the consumers. In particulary by the « welfare state » (unemployment benefits) to boost consumption.
Reaganomics where inspired by Milton FRIEDMAN, was indeed a return in the « ruthless capitalism ». The first principle of thereaganomics was a small government « low taxes and limited spending ». No government intervention in the economy: small government.The second principle : supply-side economics, favoring the producers, so private companies.
These principles 1980-2007/8.
R.Reagan’s decisions :
cuts in education, health care & minority support spending (billion of dollars)
introduce tax breaksthe first tax break was a -25% break on income tax over 3 years.
New tax breaks specificly for companies and « the well off » (very rich american)maximum tax rate : 75% to 50% (« the trickle down effect »)
Deregulation for the environment (if they pollute or not), safety and health (food producers, regulation if the food checks if the food is correct)
1980 : 12%
1982 : 6.5%
R presents it as a success but in fact, the oil prices is the main reason.
2)RR’s policies was ineffectif : crisis 1980-1982 (GDP went down to 5%) jobless rate : 10.8%
3)Economic recovery : 1982-1988 jobless rate : 5%
Huge public deficit : rise of Medicare (elderly) and retirement persions; this was very a big problem, RR wanted to spend this moneybecause old people voted for him
Spend a lot of money in defense budget : 1/3 federal budget.So at the end, the national debt explosed: 1980 $1 Trillion (mille milliard de dollars)1989 superior to 2.5 trillionThis became a very big problem for George Bush, Senior.
US society in the 1980s
The main reason that people had a very bad idea of Reagan years : huge rift (divide) between rich andpoor. At the end of 1988, the top 1% of population earning as much as 90% of the US population. The poverty rate : 10.8%
Before 1980, poor people were elderly & rural areas people.
After 1980, poor people were african americans, womens, children (single-parent families) in urbain areas. => « inner city decay » : poor people started to concentrate in the center of cities : dev of…